In 1969, the concept of laser cleaning was first proposed by S. M. Beadair and Harold P. Smith, JR. of the Space Science Laboratory and Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, USA. Laser cleaning technology is based on the outstanding advantages of green, good cleaning effect, wide application range, high precision, non-contact and good accessibility, in sharp contrast with cleaning agents, ultrasonic and mechanical cleaning, and is expected to partially or completely replace traditional cleaning in the future. The method has become the green cleaning technology with the most development potential in the 21st century.
Although the appearance of laser cleaning can be traced back to the 1960s, the research and application of this innovative cleaning technology has gradually expanded since the 1990s. In the past 20 years, there have been reports on laser cleaning technology at home and abroad. In recent years, it has rapidly become a research hotspot in the field of industrial manufacturing. The research content mainly covers laser cleaning technology, theory, equipment and applications. The overall level of application and application is far behind that of foreign countries.
In the field of industrial applications, with the rapid development of lasers and the continuous in-depth research on the mechanism of laser cleaning, the surface quality monitoring and characterization methods have become increasingly complete and comprehensive, the surface quality of laser cleaning materials has been improved, and the cleaning accuracy and efficiency have gradually increased. Today, it is a reliable technology capable of cleaning a wide variety of substrate surfaces.
The laser cleaning object is divided into two parts: the base material and the cleaning material. The base material mainly includes steel, light alloy, non-ferrous metal, silicon and composite materials, etc. The cleaning material mainly includes rust, oxide film, paint layer, coating, oil stain and particles Wait. Laser cleaning technology has broad application prospects in the industrial field, including aerospace, automobile, high-speed rail, ship, marine and nuclear power industries.
In terms of theory and technology, although a large number of experiments have been carried out in the research of laser cleaning technology at home and abroad, the theory and mechanism of laser cleaning are not yet perfect. Although researchers have established relevant physical models and made certain assumptions and conditions, these models still have great limitations. To fully reveal and understand the laser cleaning process, a lot of research is still needed, especially in laser and materials Interactions require more consideration.
In terms of practical application, there is a large gap between domestic and foreign countries. This is caused by many reasons. In addition to the immature laser cleaning mechanism and process, the equipment also limits the improvement of laser cleaning efficiency and accuracy. Power short-pulse laser, which is a major bottleneck restricting the development of high-efficiency laser cleaning equipment.
Today’s advanced manufacturing industry has become the commanding heights of international competition. Laser manufacturing is a key task deployed during my country’s “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period. As an advanced technology in laser manufacturing, laser cleaning technology has great potential for application value in industrial development and is vigorously developed. Laser cleaning technology has very important strategic significance for the substantial improvement of the international competitiveness of my country’s high-end laser manufacturing technology and equipment, and the development of economy and society.